12: Hegel & Marx



Key Terms


  • Read and analyze descriptions of philosophical thought
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the pursuit of a just society through different approaches
  • Demonstrate an ability to discuss and reflect upon the application of the course material to various aspects of life.
  • Evaluate the personal and social responsibilities of living in a diverse world.

I. Modernity

  • New way of thinking about the world
  • Optimistic outlook applying progress to all areas

II. Hegel

  • Reason rules the world
  • Reason is the divine idea that compels us to greatness and perfection
  • Imperfection must be overcome
  • Progress as a strictly European concept

G. W. F. Hegel

Reason rules the world

III. The Metanarrative

  • Essential Truth that will bring about deliverence
  • Universal captivity, struggle, emancipation
  • Examples
    • Freud’s theories of the ego
    • Evangelism
    • Buddhist enlightenment
    • Marxian Socialism

IV. Marx


  • A. A Secular Approach
    • Create a socialist (classless) society
    • Brought about by citizens, not leaders
    • Equal sharing of resources and responsibilities
    • State control of society’s needs
    • Society’s control of the state

  • B. Enacting Socialism
    • Abolition of property in land and application of all rents of land to public purposes.
    • A heavy progressive or graduated income tax.
    • Abolition of all rights of inheritance.
    • Confiscation of the property of all emigrants and rebels.
    • National bank
    • National communication and transportation
    • Extension of factories and instruments of production owned by the state
    • Equal obligation of all to work
    • Combination of agriculture with manufacturing industries; equable distribution of the populace over the country
    • Free education for all children in public schools

  • C. Confusing Socialism and Communism
    • Socialism is an economic system, not a political system
    • Socialism is liberal, insofar as it desires everyone to contribute (e.g. taxes)
    • But this does not produce a system of government
    • In reality, those who want more power take control— enter: Communism

Logic Week 12: Bandwagoning and Ad Hominem Attack